Tips for writing your first scientific literature review writin BY Emily Crawford Emily Crawford often retreated to her apartment rooftop mrdical San Francisco to write her review. Photo courtesy of Matthew Perry. When I undertook the task of writing a scientific literature review article last year, I had hoped that a Google search would reveal revieew handful of how-to pages thoughtfully created by veterans of this particular writing process. I found nothing of the sort, so I plowed ahead on my own, inventing techniques for myself. I was running a protein over a nickel column on a Sunday evening in February when my adviser approached me about co-authoring a review article for Annual Review of Biochemistry.
That was fine with me — as a fifth-year graduate student, I had learned to cope with, and even prefer, extreme independence. To be honest, I was excited to have this opportunity papr examine the literature in depth and to create something useful out of it. Getting papfr Our topic was caspase substrates, a diverse group of proteins essential for programmed cell death and thus important to our understanding of how to kill cancer cells.
I would have to assess the limits imposed by the journal 30 pages, six months as well as my own limits and the necessity to balance the writing project with lab work that was essential to finishing my Ph. Narrowing the scope of the article to conform to these boundaries was perhaps the biggest challenge of this process.
Knowing that I work better when I focus on one project at a time, I spent the next two months carrying out all of my regular lab work while only pondering the review article and skimming the literature when I had time. After that, I transitioned to full-time reading and writing. Afternoons I often spent writing at my apartment or at the library on campus. I tried to reassure myself by remembering that I had been rather good at writing term papers in college; but this was a larger task and one with the potential for having an impact on someone, somewhere, sometime who wanted to learn about caspase substrates.
In the end, I finished by the deadline well, plus one two-week extension the editor agreed to grant me and was very happy with the product and with all I had learned about caspase substrates, about the scientific literature and about the review-writing process.
Figure 8 Global hazardous waste generation by type. What about lead, zinc, waste oil, bases, not to mention industrial waste, which by far leads the pack in this report. Numerous studies speculate how all of these waste chemicals have caused damage to the environment, Figure 9 Nuclear fuel pool capacity.
How much of this spent fuel may be leaking or reflect the amount of radiation that may be affecting the environment can only be speculated. And again studies have been done hypothesizing radiation as causing damage to the environment, As to autism specifically, a problem of the young, Dr. Seneff has already predicted that by the yearhalf of the children will be afflicted with autism from glyphosate poisoning. Seneff advocates, singling out glyphosate and banning it, while ignoring the diverse list of other potential culprits such as harmful chemicals, environmental activities, and human conditions, including maternal diabetes, afflicting the human race.
As to phobias, anxiety, and panic attacks — these psychoneuroses have increased along with a variety of the psychological stresses associated with a fast-paced, materialistic, and secular society, not to mention social, environmental, and economic conditions, as illustrated in the previous graphs. These anxiety disorders, like the other illnesses, need to be separated and individually tested. The methodology employed by the authors is repeatedly assailed by the second previously cited epidemiological error, the correlation-causation fallacy — that is, correlation does not establish causation.
Therefore, on this basis of association, the one supposedly causes the other. The epidemiological hypothesis is identified, but it is far from adequately tested, much less proven, by the data provided and the myriad of pathophysiological processes described by the authors.
In fact, there is no unifying pathophysiological hypothesis but a number of disconnected mechanisms that the authors attribute in one way or another to Mn, accumulation or depletion, with cellular damage. Blaylock and I agree that they should have concentrated on just a minimal number of diseases, where the evidence is more than circumstantial. Samsel and Seneff, all of the above conditions are associated with Mn metabolism in the laboratory, but the evidence is not convincing that Mn disruption in so many different ways is caused by glyphosate utilization in the body, particularly in vivo, in man or animal.
Nor do I believe the evidence is there to warrant the statement: Furthermore, in this same context, the authors write: This study showed increased risk to mammary tumors in females, as well as kidney and liver damage in the males, and a shortened lifespan in both females and males. These effects occurred both in response to Roundup and to the GM food alone. These effects only began to be apparent after 4 months. While long-term follow-up is definitely important, the third erroneous concept that now enters the discussion must be considered. In short, it is the huge doses, fed and ingested by these animals, that cause the carcinogenicity, not natural and normal feeding in their present environments.
Sedibeng Breweries About the Company Sedibeng Breweries is a medium-scale brewery located in the growing industrial centre of Selebi Phikwe, Botswana. Their product is traditionally-brewed xnalysis beer, targeted at white collar and working class Batswana alike. Use of the internet is only growing, so ignoring this weakness for too long could have disastrous consequences. This is one area in which being a small local firm could be a major advantage for Sedibeng, but international market research and more information about the government export initiatives are required.
Botanical Bounty About the Company Botanical Bounty is an Oregon-based perennial farm that grows a variety of botanical, medicinal plants. This family-owned farm has been in existence for two years, initially operating as a hobby for the owners—who have training in plant biology—rather than as a profit-producing business. Botanical Bounty also needs to establish a strong sales channel with herbal supplement manufacturers, and should invest plenty of energy into building those relationships and establishing Botanical Bounty as a reliable vendor. The company is planning to open its first location in downtown Yubetchatown, and is very focused on developing a business link that will make it easy to expand quickly and that opens up the possibility of franchising.
Funding a new business can take time, and the sooner UPer Crust Pies gets started on this process, the better. Because UPer Crust Pies wants to implement such a specific marketing strategy—targeting ppaer families by emphasizing that their dinner option is both healthy and convenient—the company should develop a marketing plan. Although the business is new, owner Haley Truit has been a milliner for many years. Haley can also teach herself by exploring free online marketing resources on EtsyBplansand elsewhere. Replay Plastics About the Company Replay Plastics recycles plastic waste into commercially viable products, using environmentally-friendly methods.
The recycled material from the PET plant will then be channeled into a brand-new Replay Plastics Packaging Division, which will produce extruded sheet plastic to sell to manufacturers. Luckily they have already written their business plan, which is often required by prospective lenders and investors. NovOculi About the Company NovOculi, Inc. Current refractive techniques, like LASIK, require analhsis of a portion of the protective epithelial layer overlying the cornea of the eye and swit accompanied by complications resulting from this loss of protection.
Blue, who is 20 years old, knew that even temporary possession of written notes was against the rules, but he shrugged it off as a necessary risk. Kites fill the gap. In prison, contraband is defined as anything not issued by the prison, purchased from the prison commissary, sent from outside from a list of allowed items, or any of the foregoing altered in any way. Written communication between prisoners is prohibited. In most states, prisoners are not allowed to communicate with other prisoners by letter without prior permission and sometimes not even then.
So paper kites are passed, connecting interested parties with threats and reminders, mash notes, business deals and dinner invitations — pieces of folded paper secretly inscribed, ferried, delivered and destroyed. American law assures its incarcerated with few basic tangibles: The paper, envelopes and stamps are given to any inmate, but especially to the indigent — those without any money in their account. The list of permitted items is finite and comes with quotas, but paper often gets a pass on rationing. Quotas at the John E. A federal prison will provide a locker for storage, but at Polk all possessions, including clothes, food and paper, must fit into a blue mesh duffle bag.
There are books and magazines, writing and drawing paper, legal paperwork, letters to be reread and the extremely versatile toilet paper. A type of paper that is forbidden: What most prisoners do with all those paper things — besides reading and writing — is make other things. Some of these items, like kites and crafts, are mostly benign, but some, like the paper knife — more lore than real, according to one prison official — are a threat to the safety of the prison, which is always and by its nature, a very dangerous place for everyone.
The act of creation is empowering and gives prisoners some measure of control over their strictly monitored lives. Yet even the unaltered paper object can hold power, such as the information and ideas found in books and magazines. All prisoners have access to a law library and a leisure library, and there exists another, perhaps busier, underground lending library: And so an environment of oppression becomes the mother of invention.
With nothing but time on their hands, prisoners find ways to communicate, play, trade and fight each other and the system with altered paper, some in ingenious ways, and others with tried and true techniques. Yet for all the creative ways paper is used among the incarcerated, its adaptability is limited. Prison folklore gets passed down from one set of inmates to the next, and the same items get recreated.
Only when extreme loneliness and a desperate need of attention strikes does paper get made into something radically new. Colorful and copious prison slang is often indecipherable to an outsider.
Sag es weiter Der schnellste Weg, den Tweet eines anderen mit deinen Followern zu teilen, ist ein Retweet. Erhalte noch mehr interessante Infos Folge mehr Accounts, um sofort Updates zu Themen zu bekommen, die dir wichtig sind. It is the first day of orientation..
How to Make a Thesis Outline Writing a term paper proposal requires a topic, a working title and a clear intention of the paper you are planning to write. The purpose of the proposal is to present a working title and detailed description of the paper so that an instructor can give corrections and adjustments for the final paper.
Doing enough prep work for the proposal will get you started on writing a draft of your eventual paper. Pick a topic that is familiar or of interest. Make sure that the topic meets the assignment guidelines before you begin. Write a brief description of the paper. Be sure to include the paper title even if it is a tentative one. Outline the parts of the paper and a brief description of what each part will cover. A sample outline might include a "Background" section about the topic, and a "Purpose" section which covers the questions to be answered by the term paper.
Include a "Results or Findings" section, describing how the paper would fulfill the questions. Write a "Significance" section describing why the results are important. Finally, include a "Conclusion" section, providing a summary of the paper, the results and any thoughts on future work for the topic. Be as brief as possible because you are only providing an idea of what readers can expect to see in the final draft. Explain the significance of the topic and what contribution the paper will make to knowledge about the topic. For example, you might write how your paper will give the reader more insight on a specific topic or confirm a pre-declared hypothesis.
If this is a research paper, give a discussion on the intended results even though you have not gone through the research yet. List planned references for the paper. If references are primary sources, such as interviews, explain how you will gather the data and present it. References Purdue University Online Writing Lab: Writing a Research Paper About the Author Patricia Smith Michaels has been writing business and technology articles online since She has written instructional manuals and white papers for corporations and has more than 20 years of experience as a researcher and consultant in the areas of health care, education and management.
She holds a Master of Business Administration in management and a Bachelor of Science in computers from St. Photo Credits writing tablet of paper with pen image by Joann Cooper from Fotolia..
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Potential Topics TOPICS Listed below are some examples of possible topics. The possibilities are virtually endless. Any topic related to business and ethics is acceptable. It is allowable to use published cases, although judges tend to respond more favorably to current issues. A NOTE REGARDING TOPICS: First, teams are free to choose whichever topic you want. However, please be sure that your topic relates to a business ethics issue. Second, one of the most distinctive features of IBECC is the ability of teams either to identify ethical issues before anyone else has or to come up with creative solutions to hoteo problems.
But these topics do represent important and interesting challenges. Thomas White, Founder and Director, IBECC. In the last few years, more than people pwper been killed in mass shootings in the United States. This includes the slaughter of nearly 30 children in Newtown, Connecticut. Household gun ownership in the U. Attempts to enact legislation to address this problem, however, have failed. This raises the question of whether firearms companies might be more effective in finding a way to protect the lives of innocent people while not compromising the welfare of their companies and the rights of their "writing a paper on international business hotel." Companies in all industries regularly recognize that being ethical means going beyond simply following the laws and being a leader.
What concrete actions could they take in order to reduce the number of preventable deaths of innocent people. Helped by new technology, a deluge of facts and a public much less given to trust than once it was, some politicians are getting away with a new depth and pervasiveness of falsehood. Twitter has come under fire for allowing the spread of lies and harassment.
Do webhosting companies have a duty to monitor the content of the websites on their servers.