What is the meaning of writing skills
By definition, the modern practice of history begins with written records. Evidence of human culture without writing is the realm of prehistory. Mesopotamia[ edit ] While neolithic writing is a current research topic, conventional history assumes that the writing process first evolved from economic necessity in the ancient Near East. Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities.
Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in learn more here permanent form.
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Louvre Museum Writnig Denise Schmandt-Besserat determined the link between previously click the following article clay "tokens", the oldest of which have been found in the Zagros region of Iran, and the first known writing, Mesopotamian cuneiform. Later they began placing these tokens inside large, hollow clay containers bulla, or globular envelopes which were then sealed.
The quantity of tokens in each container came to what is the meaning of writing skills expressed by impressing, on the container's surface, one picture for each instance of the token inside. They next dispensed with the tokens, relying source on symbols for the tokens, drawn on clay surfaces.
To avoid making a picture for each instance of the same object for example: In this way the Sumerians added "a system for enumerating objects to their incipient system of symbols". The original Mesopotamian writing system believed to be the world's oldest was derived around BC from this method of keeping accounts. By the end of the 4th millennium BC,  the Mesopotamians were using a triangular-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay to record numbers.
This system was gradually augmented with using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted by means of pictographs. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus hence the term cuneiformat first only for logogramsbut by the 29th century BC also for phonetic elements.
Around BC, cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian.
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About that time, Mesopotamian cuneiform became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. This script was adapted to another Mesopotamian language, the East Semitic Akkadian Assyrian what is the meaning of writing skills Babylonian around BC, and then to others such as ElamiteHattianHurrian and Hittite. Scripts similar what is the meaning of writing skills appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.
With the adoption of Aramaic as the 'lingua franca' of the Neo-Assyrian Empire BCOld Aramaic was also adapted to Mesopotamian cuneiform. The last cuneiform scripts in Akkadian discovered thus far date from the 1st century AD. Elamite scripts[ edit ] Over the centuries, three distinct Elamite scripts developed. Proto-Elamite is the oldest known writing system from Iran. In use only for a brief time c. The Proto-Elamite script is thought to have developed from early cuneiform proto-cuneiform. The Proto-Elamite script consists of more than 1, signs and is thought to be partly logographic. Linear Elamite is a writing system attested in a few monumental inscriptions in Iran.
It was used for a very brief period during the last quarter of the 3rd millennium BC.
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It is often claimed that Linear Elamite is a syllabic writing system derived from Proto-Elamite, although this cannot be proven since Linear-Elamite has not been deciphered. Several scholars have attempted to decipher the script, most notably Walther Hinz and Piero Meriggi.
Avoid capitalizing all words. Always be sure to limit the point that starts a paragraph. For example, being able to prepare a strong summary is a skill that is extremely useful for briefing senior managers. The same is true in other fields as well. South America[ edit ] The Incas had no known script. Make each sentence complete:
The Elamite cuneiform script was used from about to BC, and was adapted from the Akkadian cuneiform. The Elamite cuneiform script consisted of about symbols, far fewer than most other cuneiform scripts. Cretan and Greek scripts[ edit ] Further information: Cretan hieroglyphsLinear Aand Linear B Cretan hieroglyphs are found on artifacts of Crete early-to-mid-2nd millennium BC, MM I to MM III, overlapping with Linear A from MM IIA at the earliest. Linear Bthe writing system of the Mycenaean Greeks has been deciphered while Linear A has yet to be deciphered. The sequence and the geographical spread of the three overlapping, but distinct writing systems can be summarized as follows: Oracle bone script and Bronzeware script The earliest surviving examples of writing in China—inscriptions on so-called " oracle bones ", tortoise plastrons what is the meaning of writing skills ox scapulae used for divination—date from around BC in the late Shang dynasty.
A small number of bronze inscriptions from the same period have also survived. The earliest known hieroglyphic inscriptions are the Narmer Palettedating to c.
The hieroglyphic script was logographic with phonetic adjuncts that included an effective alphabet. Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes.
Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities. The hieroglyph system was always difficult to learn, but in later centuries was purposely made even more so, as this preserved the scribes' status. The world's oldest known alphabet appears to have been developed by Canaanite turquoise miners this web page the Sinai desert around the link century BC.
This site was also home to a temple of Hathor, the "Mistress of turquoise".
A later, two line inscription has also been found at Wadi el-Hol in Central Egypt. Based on hieroglyphic prototypes, but also including entirely new symbols, each sign apparently stood for a consonant rather than a word: It was not until the 12th to 9th centuries, however, that the alphabet took hold and became widely used. Indus script Indus script refers to short strings wjat symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization which spanned modern-day Pakistan and North India used between and BC. In spite of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is as yet undeciphered.
The term 'Indus script' is mainly applied to that used in the mature Harappan phase, which perhaps evolved from a few signs found in early Harappa after BC,  and was followed by the mature Harappan script. The script is written from right to left,  and sometimes follows a boustrophedonic style. Since the number of principal signs is about —,  midway between typical logographic and syllabic scripts, many scholars accept the script to be logo-syllabic  typically syllabic scripts have about 50— signs whereas logographic scripts have a very large number of principal signs.
Several scholars maintain that structural analysis indicates that an agglutinative language underlies the script. Central Asia[ edit ] Archaeologists have recently discovered that there was a civilization in Central Asia using writing c. An excavation near Ashgabatthe capital of Turkmenistanrevealed an inscription on a piece of stone that was used as a stamp seal. The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Canaanite script sometime before the 14th century BC, which in turn borrowed principles of representing phonetic information from HieraticCuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics.
This writing system was an odd sort of syllabary writiing which only consonants are represented. This script was adapted by the Greekswho adapted certain consonantal signs to represent their vowels. The Cumae alphabeta variant of the early Greek alphabet, gave rise to the Etruscan alphabetand its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet and Runes. Other descendants from the Greek alphabet skill Cyrillicused to write BulgarianRussian and Serbian among others.
The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic scriptfrom which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended. The Tifinagh script Berber languages is descended from wriying Libyco-Berber script which is assumed to be of Phoenician origin. Mesoamerica[ edit ] A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, known as the Cascajal Whwt discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing by approximately years. Of several pre-Columbian scripts in Mesoamericathe one that appears to have been best developed, and the only one to be deciphered, is the Maya script.
The earliest inscriptions which witing identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC. South America[ edit ] The Incas had no known script. Their quipu system of recording information—based on knots tied along one or many linked cords—was apparently used for inventory and accountancy purposes and could not encode textual information.
One of the slabs contains 4 groups of pictographs divided by lines. Some of the characters are also found in Ancient Greekas well as in PhoenicianEtruscanOld Italic and Iberian. The origin and the timing of the writings are disputed, because there are no precise evidence in situthe slabs cannot be carbon dated, because of the bad treatment of the Cluj museum. There are indirect carbon dates found on a skeleton discovered near the slabs, that certifies the — BC period. Modern importance[ edit ] Click here wirting 21st centurywriting has become an important part of daily life as technology has connected individuals from across the globe through systems such as e-mail and social media.
Literacy has grown in importance as a factor for success in the modern world. In the United States, the ability to read and write are necessary for most jobs, and multiple programs are in place to aid both children and adults in improving their literacy skills. For example, the emergence of the writing center and community-wide literacy councils aim to help students and community members sharpen their writing skills. These resources, and many more, span across different age groups in order to offer each individual a better understanding of their language and how to express themselves via writing in order to perhaps improve their socioeconomic status.
Other parts of the world have seen an increase in writing abilities as a result of programs such as the World Literacy Foundation and International Literacy Foundationas well as a general push for increased global communication. Creation of textual or written information[ edit ].